Five-year follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes transplanted with allogeneic islets: the UIC experience

This report summarizes a 5-year phase 1/2 allogeneic islet transplantation clinical trial conducted at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). Ten patients were enrolled in this single center, open label, and prospective trial in which patients received 1–3 transplants. The first four subjects underwent islet transplantation with the Edmonton immunosuppressive regimen and the remaining six subjects received the UIC immunosuppressive protocol (Edmonton plus etanercept and exenatide). All 10 patients achieved insulin independence after 1–3 transplants. At 5 years of follow-up, 6 of the initial 10 patients were free of exogenous insulin. During the follow-up period, 7 of the 10 patients maintained positive C-peptide levels and a composite hypoglycemic score of 0. Most patients maintained HbA1c levels <6.0 % (42.1 mmol/mol) and a significantly improved β-score. In conclusion, this study demonstrated long-term islet graft function without using T cell depleting induction, with an encouraging outcome that includes 60 % of patients remaining insulin independent after 5 years of initial transplantation.

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